Tuesday, January 14, 2020

How is Global Warming Effecting Hurricanes Essay

As we all know oceans cover about 70% of the Earth’s surface and typically the principle component of hydrosphere and contain roughly 97% of the Earth’s water supply. It plays very important role in the Earth’s climate by transferring warm as well as cold air and precipitation to coastal regions, where they may be carried inland by winds. The winds give energy to the sea surface that result in ocean currents. The currents carry heat from one location to another, changing the Earth’s surface temperature patterns and bring in changes in the atmosphere. Hence, ocean has a tremendous affect on climates and visa-versa. The thermohaline circulation of the ocean distributes heat energy between the equatorial and Polar Regions of the earth while other ocean currents do the same between land and water. However, today with the increase in the emissions of greenhouse gases, scientists and environmentalists are equally concerned that the polar ice caps could probably melt and contribute to the increase in ocean level. In recent years global warming is linked by many to the strength and number of hurricane. This is a research paper on a â€Å"CASE ANALYSIS† of a crisis we are facing with global warming and how it is affecting hurricanes. There are several studies that show that in the past years temperature has risen on the globe including the ocean temperature. Incidentally, during these years the number of hurricanes has also risen. This is the basic reason that scientists began to think if the increase in temperature is causing the disaster of hurricanes which need warm water to thrive. A few scientists also think that the temperature increase could also cause a â€Å"super-hurricanes† or the ultimate hurricanes in the U. S. east coast shores. It is predicted that these hurricanes will be more powerful than the once experienced till now (personal. psu. edu, N. D. ). Before we get into the details of how global warming can result in stronger and increasing number of hurricanes, it is important to understand what is global warming. Global Warming Global Warming as the word suggest is an increase of the global average temperature and is also termed as Greenhouse Effect. In general, the greenhouse gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxides which are responsible to trap heat that has been reflected from the earth’s surface. Scientific studies provide enough proof that on an average, the global temperature has increased 0. 5 °C over the last 100 years. However, there was a rapid increase in temperature only in the past 10-15 years and has resulted in climate changes (personal. psu. edu, N. D. ). The sea interacts with the atmosphere in two different methods, physically and chemically. The physical way is through the exchange of heat, water, and momentum. More than 70 percent of the Earth’s surface is covered by ocean and contains about 97 percent of its surface water and stores huge amounts of energy in the form of heat. Besides, the sea has comparatively large temperature resistance to change. Today, it is understood that the biological and physical performance of the ocean can change rapidly over minute and large areas. It usually decides the timing and models of climate change. When the heat increases over the ocean it escapes to warm the atmosphere and creates temperature variation in the atmosphere which in turn causes winds. As a result, winds move horizontally over the sea surface to drive ocean motion patterns. The variations in temperature and salinity cause vertical ocean currents which makes the warmer, fresher waters flow upwards as colder, denser or saltier water tends to move down. Eventually, a complex flow pattern is created through which the warm surface waters move pole ward where heat escapes fast to outer space, as cold, deep currents are established in the sea depths. Because of this complex ocean circulation movement system, the oceans and atmosphere get together to distribute heat and control climate. As this movement conveys huge amounts of heat and as a result more moderate climates on land areas that are nearer the ocean. It is not surprising to note that man’s increasing needs have simultaneously increased the load of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The burning of fossil fuels releases many harmful pollutants particularly the greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and contributes global warming. Increases of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere increases the earth’s temperature and results in malting of glaciers and ice sheets (Meehl, et al. 2005).

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